Print ISSN: 1992-7428

Online ISSN: 2706-686X

Volume 11, Issue 2

Volume 11, Issue 2, Winter and Spring 2017, Page 1-91

Consistency and Compressibility Characteristics of contaminated Compacted Clay liners

Khalid Rassim Mahmood Al-Janabi; Basim Mohammed Abdulla

Iraqi Journal of Civil Engineering, 2017, Volume 11, Issue 2, Pages 1-8
DOI: 10.37650/ijce.2017.134101

Processed and natural clays are widely used to construct impermeable liners in solid waste disposal landfills. The engineering properties of clay liners can be significantly affected by the leachate from the waste mass. In this study, the effect of inorganic salt solutions on consistency and compressibility characteristics of compacted clay was investigated at different concentrations. Two type of inorganic salt MnSO4 and FeCl3 are used at different concentration 2%, 5%, and 10%. The Clay used was the CL- clay (kaolinite).
The result shows that the consistency limits increased as the concentration of salts increased, while the compression index (Cc) decreases as the concentration increased from 2% to 5%, after that the Cc is nearly constant. The swelling index (Ce) tends to increase slightly as the concentration of MnSO4 increased, while it decreases as the concentration of FeCl3 increased.

Study And Evaluation The Optimal Performance Of The Mixing Chlorine Tank In Dhi Qar Wastewater Treatment Plant In Iraq

Ali Hadi GHAWI

Iraqi Journal of Civil Engineering, 2017, Volume 11, Issue 2, Pages 1-14
DOI: 10.37650/ijce.2017.134107

Chlorine contact tank in water and waste water treatment plant suffer from a lack of efficiency disinfected treated water, which discharge to the rivers and they need a large amount of chlorine for the purpose of disinfection as a result of the presence of dead zones in the basins of chlorine as well as the need to contact a long more than exact standard specifications for the tanks disinfection time. This study deal with optimal performance basin mixing chlorine, which is located at the beginning of Chlorine contact tank of waste water treatment plant in the city of Nasiriyah in Dhi Qar, which is located south of the province of Iraq. In this paper, the use of computational fluid dynamic model in the numerical analysis for the purpose of finding the optimum performance of the chlorine mixing tank with the help of the program FLUENT 6.3.26 and program GAMBIT 2.3.16. Also in this study was used User Defined Function for the purpose of improvements of mixing chlorine. Where the results of the study showed that the ideal rotational speed of the mixer is 140 rpm as well as the results showed Numerical Model that can reduce chlorine dose to 5 mgliter, which is the optimum concentration of chlorine to be supplied for wastewater disinfect and is identical to the Iraqi specifications water sanitation, which discharge to the Euphrates River. In this study the best contact time of chlorine which give the best performance for mixing was 20 seconds.

Evaluating the cracks of Highway Tunnel Concrete Lining by Using a Fuzzy Inspection System

Yousif Abdulwahid Mansoor

Iraqi Journal of Civil Engineering, 2017, Volume 11, Issue 2, Pages 9-15
DOI: 10.37650/ijce.2017.134102

In the civil engineering, the prediction of cracks for tunnel lining is too hard because it depends by different factors for example concrete strength, tunnel operation conditions, stress and geological surroundings. The aim of this study is to design a Fuzzy inspect System (FIS) for evaluating the concrete cracks of tunnel lining. Fuzzy logic is a method to signify a type of uncertainty which is understandable for user. The system has been designed to meet permit crack formula that issued in “Highway Tunnel Design Specifications”. When the maximal permit crack width as example is chosen as 0.7mm, 1.2mm and 3.3mm separately the fuzziness set accordingly is Minor , moderate and severe. The average error for the predicted crack (element sample) in FIS is 8.34%. The fuzzy evaluation model is based on the information of a real in-service PESHRAW highway tunnel, which reflects field status. Therefore, this evaluation is comfortable.

Behaviour of Rectangular Footing Subjected to Gepseous Soil under Eccentricity-Inclined Loads

Mazin Ali Hussein; Dr. Adnan Jayed Zedan

Iraqi Journal of Civil Engineering, 2017, Volume 11, Issue 2, Pages 15-29
DOI: 10.37650/ijce.2017.135619

In this study the behavior of rectangular footing on gypeous soil was studied under inclined and eccentric loading. The experiments were performed using laboratory scale rectangular footing rested on soil taken from Tikrit University site in Salah Al Din province under 3 m depth which has a gypsum content of (50.48 %). The load test was performed on rectangular footing at eccentricity of (e/B= 0, 0.1, 0.2 and 0.3) and an angle of inclination of the load with the vertical ( i= 0°, 5°, 10°, 15°and 20°). The local specifications of the soil are measured (density, moisture, maximum density and optimum moisture content), it is found that that the vertical settlement, horizontal displacement, and base inclination increases with the increasing of eccentricity and inclination of load, the values of bearing capacity that getting in this study was less than of the previous theoretical studies when the load was vertical, and is given a good agreement when load was inclined and field density and moisture of soil. The values of bearing capacity was decreased when the load eccentricity increased because of the effective area became small. It is found that a high settlement occur in footing when a water (unsaturated with gypsum salts) diffuses through the soil, then gypsum become soluble thereby the soil resistance decreases because of rupturing of chemical bond between gypsum and soil.

Mechanical Properties And Flexural Behavior of reinforced Polymer Modified Concrete beams enhanced by Waste Plastic Fibers (WPF)

Dr.Abdulkader Ismail Al- Hadithi; Shahad Younus Thabet Al-Waysi

Iraqi Journal of Civil Engineering, 2017, Volume 11, Issue 2, Pages 16-32
DOI: 10.37650/ijce.2017.134103

This research include the study of flexural behavior of polymer modified concrete beams containing waste plastic fiber (WPF). Fifteen reinforced concrete beams are moulded of (100*150*1300) mm dimension with different steel reinforcement ratio (ρ). These steel reinforcement ratio were (0.0038, 0.0207 & 0.0262). Styrene Butadine Rubber (SBR) was added as cement replacement by weight equal to (5%). Reinforced concrete beams classified in to five groups, each contains three beams with different (ρ) value. The first group conducted of reference concrete mix , the second group made with SBR modified concrete, while the three remaining groups were make by PMC containing (WPF) with volumetric ratio equal to (0.75, 1.25 & 1.75)%.
This study includes compressive and flexural tests for concrete which was used in this research, load deflection relationships, the moment at mid-span with deflection and ductility were established.
The results prove that, polymer modified concrete wich content waste plastic fiber has compressive and flexural strengths more than reference mixes as well as the PMC beams wich content waste plastic fiber have a stiffer response in terms of structural behaviour, more ductility and lower cracking deflection than those made by reference concretes and that refer to good role of styrene Butadiene Rubber (SBR) polymer and plastic fiber on the properties and behaviour of reinforced concrete beams.


Khalil Ibrahim Aziz; Huda Al Moqbel kuhair

Iraqi Journal of Civil Engineering, 2017, Volume 11, Issue 2, Pages 33-44
DOI: 10.37650/ijce.2017.134104

This study program has been conducted to investigate the influence of adding waste plastic fibers (WPF) resulting from manual cutting for bottles used in the conservation gassy beverage on different characteristics of ordinary concrete.
Cutting plastic waste by volumetric rates ranging between (0.5%) to (2%) was approved. Reference mix was produced for comparison. Tests were conducted on the models produced from waste plastic fiber concrete like compressive strength, flexural strength and splitting tensile strength. The analysis of the results showed that the use of plastic waste fibers (1%) has led to improve the properties of flexural strength and splitting tensile strength compared with reference concrete .When the( 0.75%)WPF ratio improved the compressive strength as compared with the control specimen . Compressive strength in (28 days) with fiber ratio (0.75%) WPF is higher than equal (5.1%) from compressive strength in (28 days) of reference concrete. Volumetric ratio (1%) WPF can be also observed that each of the flexural strength and splitting tensile strength increases equal (12.5 and 12.5%) respectively, from flexural strength and splitting tensile strength for the reference mix at(28day).

Reinforcement of sandy soil using plastic fibres made from waste plastic bottles

Younis M. Alshkane

Iraqi Journal of Civil Engineering, 2017, Volume 11, Issue 2, Pages 45-54
DOI: 10.37650/ijce.2017.134105

Today waste plastic bottles are spread widely throughout our world especially in Kurdistan, an autonomous region in Iraq. These waste products cause many environmental problems and at the same time some soils are weak and need reinforcement using cheap materials such as Polyethylene terephthalate (PET) waste plastic bottle. Use of waste plastic bottles as a reinforcement of soil is highly recommended to reduce the amounts of plastic waste, which creates a disposal problem. In this study an attempt was made to use plastic fibres produced from waste bottles to reinforce sandy soil. This can solve both environmental and geotechnical problems. In the research, the effect of plastic fibres content as well as fibre length on shear strength parameters (cohesion and internal friction) were experimentally predicted using the direct shear test method so as to improve bearing capacity of weak soils. The results showed that under low normal stress the inclusion of plastic fibres increased both angle of internal friction and cohesion; however, under high normal stress (greater than 100 kPa) the cohesion increased and the internal friction was roughly unchanged. Also, it was concluded in this study that the suitable amount of fibers that can be added to weak soils is 1% of dry weight of sand.

Flexural Behavior of Composite Reinforced Concrete Slabs

Majid A. Adil; Dr. Oday Adnan Abdulrazzaq

Iraqi Journal of Civil Engineering, 2017, Volume 11, Issue 2, Pages 55-65
DOI: 10.37650/ijce.2017.134106

The main objective of this study is to get more information about the flexural behavior of composite reinforced concrete slabs using two layer of concrete, first layer is light weight concrete (LWC), and second layer is normal weight concrete (NWC), through an experimental tests carried out on five samples different in their details and the position of the concrete type layer within the slabs. In this study, simply supported slabs subjected to one point load were adopted. The effect of concrete grade for the (LWC) was also studied. The light weight coarse aggregate which that used in this study is the expanded light clay aggregate (LECA). Using this type of light aggregate in concrete leads to reducing the weight of composite concrete slabs about (11.4%-17.5%). In this study, one grade of NWC was used of (25 MPa), while three of grade types were adopted for LWC (25 MPa, 18 MPa, 15 MPa).

Application of QUAL2K for Water Quality Modeling and Management in the lower reach of the Diyala river

Ayad S. Mustafa; Sadeq O. Sulaiman; Sabreen H. Shahooth

Iraqi Journal of Civil Engineering, 2017, Volume 11, Issue 2, Pages 66-80
DOI: 10.37650/ijce.2017.134910

The current study includes application of QUAL2K model to predict the dissolved oxygen (DO) and Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD5) of lower reach of the Diyala River in a stretch of 16.90km using hydraulic and water quality data collected from Ministry of Water Resources for the period (January-April 2014). Google Earth and Arc-GIS technique were used in this study as supported tools to provide some QUAL2K input hydro-geometric data. The model parameters were calibrated for the dry flow period by trial and error until the simulated results agreed well with the observed data. The model performance was measured using different statistical criteria such as mean absolute error (MAE), root mean square error (RMSE) and relative error (RE). The results showed that the simulated values were in good agreement with the observed values. Model output for calibration showed that DO and CBOD concentration were not within the allowable limits for preserving the ecological health of the river with range values (2.51 - 4.80 mg/L) and (18.75 – 25.10 mg/L) respectively. Moreover, QUAL2K was used to simulate different scenarios (pollution loads modification, flow augmentation and local oxygenation) in order to manage the water quality during critical period (low flow), and to preserve the minimum requirement of DO concentration in the river. The scenarios results showed the pollution loads modification and local oxygenation are effective in raising DO levels. While flow augmentation does not give significant results in which the level of DO decrease even with reduction in the BOD5 for point sources. The combination of wastewater modification and local oxygenation (BOD5 of the discharged effluent from point sources should not exceed 15 mg/L and weir construction at critical positions 6.67km from the beginning of the study region with 1m height) is necessary to ensure minimum DO concentrations.

Mechanical, thermal and acoustical properties of concrete with fine Polyvinyl chloride (PVC)

Hamid H. Hussein; Osama A. Eedan; Mahmoud K. Ahmed

Iraqi Journal of Civil Engineering, 2017, Volume 11, Issue 2, Pages 81-91
DOI: 10.37650/ijce.2017.138565

This study addressed some important tests for concrete including thermal, acoustic insulation and some mechanical behaviour of concrete containing granular Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC) waste as a sand replacement. The PVC waste was collected from a plant of manufacturing PVC doors and windows, was used to replace some of fine aggregate at ratios of 2.5%, 5%, 7.5%, 10%, 12.5% and 15% by weight Properties that studied are thermal conductivity, acoustic insulation slump, fresh density, dry density, compressive strength, flexural strength, and splitting tensile strength. Curing ages of 7, 28, and 56 days for the concrete mixtures were applied in this work. From the results of this study, it is suggested that using of 12.5% fine PVC as a sand replacement by weight can improve thermal insulation to about 82.48% more than concrete without plastic waste Acoustic insulation is about 43.09% more than reference mix and it satisfies the requirement of ACI 213R 2014 for structural lightweight concrete.