Print ISSN: 1992-7428

Online ISSN: 2706-686X

Volume 16, Issue 1

Volume 16, Issue 1, Winter and Spring 2022


An Evaluation of Health Care Waste Generation and Disposal at Ramadi Teaching Hospital in Iraq

Salah Sabbar Thameel; Saeb F. Al-Chalabi; Ayad Mustafa; Ahmed A. Mohsin

Iraqi Journal of Civil Engineering, 2022, Volume 16, Issue 1, Pages 1-9
DOI: 10.37650/ijce.2022.172880

In recent years, hospital waste has been one of the most serious issues in Iraq and other parts of the world. The current study aims to measure and analyze hospital waste output across all departments at the Ramadi Teaching Hospital. The data on waste generation rates gathered for the study were primarily based on existing records of field management of hospital waste over the course of eight months (one week per month) for all departments in the hospital; however, some random sampling information was provided to supplement the data. The results revealed that the estimated rate of medical waste creation at Ramadi hospital was between 144 and 188 kg/day, whereas the general (non-medical) waste generation was between (240-278) kg/day. In terms of patient numbers and per occupied bed, the average medical waste generation rates were from 0.60 to 0.90 kg/patient/day and (0.85-1.11) kg/bed/day, respectively, whereas the average general trash generation rates ranged from 0.86 to 1.15 kg/patient/day and 1.42-1.64 kg/bed/day. The recent analysis concluded that the hospital's segregation procedure is still inefficient, and there is room for improvement in terms of reducing hazardous medical waste creation

Evaluation of the Performance of the Circular Foundation Surrounded by the Diaphragm Wall

Khalid W. Abd Al-kaream; Ahmed S. Abdulrasool; Mudhafar K. Hameedi; Zainab H. Shaker

Iraqi Journal of Civil Engineering, 2022, Volume 16, Issue 1, Pages 10-18
DOI: 10.37650/ijce.2022.172881

Increasing the bearing capacity of shallow foundations is a significant challenge in the urban environment due to increased population growth. This paper presents the bearing capacity of circular foundations encircled by a diaphragm wall.  In this study, the effects of diaphragm wall depth (0.5 D, D, 2 D) (D is the foundation diameter) of the foundation on the bearing capacity of the foundation are investigated.  Varying relative densities of sand soil (loose, medium, and dense) are utilized. The results of the experimental tests show that the diaphragm wall possesses an influence upon the settlement and the foundation bearing capacity. Where, the capacity of bearing increased as the diaphragm wall depth increased. On the other side, increasing the depth leads to a decrease in the settlement ratio of about 57%. The results of experimental work also demonstrated that the best depth is between D and 2D for all types of relative densities

Nonlinear 3D Finite Element Model for Square Composite Columns Under Various Parameters

DARA MAHMOOD; Serwan Khorsheed Rafiq; Muhammed Halkawt Adbullah

Iraqi Journal of Civil Engineering, 2022, Volume 16, Issue 1, Pages 19-28
DOI: 10.37650/ijce.2022.172882

Composite columns are frequently used in constructing high-rise structures because they can minimize the size of the building's columns while increasing the floor plan's usable space. This study aims to create a nonlinear 3D finite element model for square composite columns designed for solid and hollow columns with various multi-skin tubes subjected to loads at eccentricities of (30 and 60) mm, compressive strength, and mesh size using the ABAQUS software. The comparison was based on the experimental data of six references of composite columns. While the compressive strength of concrete increases, the stiffness of the composite column rise. The ratio of concrete compressive strength values for composite column increased by (0, 12.3, 17.8, and 26.7 percent) for (fc'=25, 31.96, 35, and 40) MPa, respectively. The results of the different mesh sizes (20, 40, and 60) mm are showing; The experimental results and the finite element solution developed using the (20 X20) mm element correspond well. The nonlinear finite element analysis method was used, and the finite element outputs results were confirmed to be in favorable agreement with the experimental data

Studying the Effects of Negative Skin Friction on Single Piles in Basrah Governorate

Jasim M. Al-Battat; Haider S. Al-Jubair; Majid Faissal Jassim; Jawad K. Mures

Iraqi Journal of Civil Engineering, 2022, Volume 16, Issue 1, Pages 29-42
DOI: 10.37650/ijce.2022.172883

The finite element method capable of simulating the behavior of deep foundations subjected to negative skin friction in Basrah soil is investigated. Single piles under drag forces are analyzed using the PLAXIS program with an axisymmetric model. Linear elastic, Soft Soil and Mohr-Coulomb constitutive relations are adopted, where higher order triangular element is chosen for pile and soil clusters. Both pile and soil are modeled using (15)-node triangular elements. Three sites in Basrah province (Umm Qasr Port, Khor Al-Zubair, and Shatt AlArab Hotel) were selected to perform this study. The soil profile and layer characteristics are obtained from the soil investigation reports. Where the negative skin friction is evaluated due to filling loads.
It is Conclusion thatSmall relative displacements are necessary to activate the negative skin friction. The elastic shorting for pile effect negative skin friction, due to increase relative displacement. The elastic shorting of the driven pile is more than that of the bored pile due to the less cross-sectional area of the driven pile. The results revealed proportional relation between the developed drag forces and pile section dimensions, interface friction factor, and fill height, with a maximum effect on the section dimension and minimum effect on the interface factor. The locations of neutral points are not sensitive to the above-mentioned factors.

Developing a Prediction Model of Present Serviceability Index Using Fuzzy Inference System

Maher Mahmood; Nazhon Ismael Khaleel

Iraqi Journal of Civil Engineering, 2022, Volume 16, Issue 1, Pages 43-51
DOI: 10.37650/ijce.2022.172884

Pavement maintenance and rehabilitation prioritization are conducted based on the accessibility of overall measures for evaluating the condition of each section in the pavement network. Regularly, the pavement condition of each section has been evaluated by some common condition indicators. One of the most important indicators is the present serviceability index (PSI) which is adapted to depict the functional performance regarding ride quality. The main aim of this study is to develop a prediction model of ride quality for flexible pavement using the fuzzy logic technique. The data of input variables are extracted from the database of Long-Term Pavement Performance (LTPP). The research involved 36 pavement sections with 319 data samples for pavement networks of different states in the USA. The ride quality measure which is PSI estimated by the AASHTO equation represents the output variable, whereas patching area, cracking length, slope variance, and rut depth are considered input variables. The results showed that the fuzzified model of ride quality prediction has a decent accuracy with a high determination coefficient. In addition, based on the testing results, the developed prediction model showed a strong accuracy to predict the ride quality index

Alternative Construction Materials to Improve Concrete Characteristics

Adil Hatem Nawar

Iraqi Journal of Civil Engineering, 2022, Volume 16, Issue 1, Pages 52-63
DOI: 10.37650/ijce.2022.172885

Determining building materials and their types and determining their effect on concrete properties are consistent with the technical and design variables of buildings. From this point of view, the research came to include theoretical studies and empirical tests for some materials, focusing on the aggregate as a basic material involved in the formation of concrete.

    The first part includes the introduction, research problem, assumptions, importance, and purpose of the research. the second part was to conduct practical experiments by designing different concrete mixtures in the mixing ratios and the type of aggregate until results were reached regarding the resistance of the concrete that was produced as a result of the difference in densities between ordinary aggregate concrete and lightweight aggregate concrete. Through that, for example, the lightweight aggregate with an age of (7) days and a mixing ratio of (1: 2: 4) gave strength to the models used (19.58) Mpa, and for the same mixing ratio and at an age of (28) days, it gave durability ( 22.83) Mpa. When the mixing ratio was changed to (1: 1.5: 3), it was (25.74) MPa and (32.34) MPa at the age of (7) days and (28) days, respectively. These results give an accurate indication that the aggregate is light in weight with similarity to the ordinary aggregate in obtaining concrete with a bearing strength within the approved specifications without guaranteeing the environmental treatments and the resulting loads

Using logistic and Multilinear Regression Technique for Modeling Productivity finish work Construction in Ramadi City

Jumaa Awad Al-Somaydaii

Iraqi Journal of Civil Engineering, 2022, Volume 16, Issue 1, Pages 64-70
DOI: 10.37650/ijce.2022.172886

An essential part of managing construction projects is productivity estimation. The accuracy of the construction productivity estimate determines the management quality. This research established a multi-variable linear regression and another mathematical model for the same variables to assess the productivity of building projects using the logistic regression approach. Data from residential, commercial, and educational projects in various regions of Anbar was utilized in the research. Numerous dependent variables were chosen with care. These independent factors, which include age, experience, the quantity of work, level of execution, and security circumstances, may be divided into objective and subjective variables. The person-hour/unit and the cost/unit are two inputs to the system that are used to measure input/output, the parameter known as productivity. The first is used for procedures that need a large amount of labour and is focused only on labour. All impacts are combined in the second cost/unit. The researcher came up with an equation that contains the following factors  (Health condition, equipment available, Security, labor, Quality work, morale, the material available, site condition, Experience, Weather, Height, and Age ).