Print ISSN: 1992-7428

Online ISSN: 2706-686X

Volume 14, Issue 2

Volume 14, Issue 2, Summer and Autumn 2020, Page 1-53

Incorporating GIS Technique and SCS-CN approach for runoff estimation in the ungauged watershed: A case study west desert of Iraq

Hadeel Qays Hashim .; Khamis Naba Sayl .

Iraqi Journal of Civil Engineering, 2020, Volume 14, Issue 2, Pages 1-6
DOI: 10.37650/ijce.2020.172862

Estimation of runoff in an ungauged watershed is a significant part in the process of the water resources management. In the Iraqi western desert, the accessibility reliable surface runoff knowledge is scarce, that affects a critical difficulty for the hydrologic engineers. Estimation of surface runoff quantity in valleys of interrupted flow is significant to mobilize the deficiency water resources and manage valleys flow accurately. The incorporation of the Soil Conservation Service Curve Number (SCS-CN) approach with the geographic information system (GIS) was applied for estimating runoff volume of Wadi Hijlan, Fahamy, and Zgadan. The amount of runoff of the maximum storm were 7388700 m3, 12750000 m3 and 9851590 m3 for Hijlan, Fahamy and Zgadan respectively. In addition, the results showed acquired via the SCS-CN technique, revealed that the runoff depth fluctuated from 12.5 mm to 20.3 mm for (48mm) the maximum storm of rainfall through 2018-2019. The present strategy can be used for planning and development other valleys in the western desert of Iraq.


Comparison among the Turbulence Models to Simulate Flow Pattern over ogee Spillway Case Study (Mandali dam in Iraq)

Ahmed Imad Rajaa .; Ammar Hatem Kamel .

Iraqi Journal of Civil Engineering, 2020, Volume 14, Issue 2, Pages 7-15
DOI: 10.37650/ijce.2020.172863

The spillway is an important structure in the dams, used to pass the flood wave to the downstream safely. In the past decades, Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) has evolved. Research findings have shown the CFD models are a great alternative for laboratory models. According to it, the flow pattern over ogee spillways can be studied in a short time and without paying high expenses. Because the flow over the ogee spillway is turbulent and has a free surface, its properties are complex and often difficult to predict. Therefore, the present paper focuses on the study of turbulence closure models including the standard k-ε, RNG k–ε, k–ω, also, the large-eddy simulation (LES) models, to assess their performance to simulate flow over the spillway. The Flow-3d software with the volume-of-fluid (VOF) algorithm is applied to obtain the free surface for each turbulence model. The results of the analysis show that the LES model yielded better results when compared with laboratory results, while the turbulence closure models result of Reynold average Navier Stocks equations (RANS) was more stable, especially standard k-ɛ and RNG models.


Fresh and hardened properties of lightweight self-compacting concrete incorporating with waste plastic and Expanded Polystyrene Beads

Ammar H. Medher .; Abdulkader I. AL-Hadithi .; Nahla N. Hilal .

Iraqi Journal of Civil Engineering, 2020, Volume 14, Issue 2, Pages 16-21
DOI: 10.37650/ijce.2020.172864

The aim of this study is to develop Lightweight self-compacting concrete (LWSCC) mixtures using locally sourced waste materials such as Expanded Polystyrene Beads (EPS) and Waste Plastic Fibers (WPFs) which are all available abundantly available in Republic of Iraq at little or no cost. The fresh, hardened and mechanical properties of these LWSCC were studied, followed by results analysis. Five different mixes of LWSCC were prepared in term of WPF content (0.25, 0.5, 0.75, 1.0, and 1.25 %), in addition to the control mix (R mix) and lightweight concrete (E mix) made of EPS content as a replacement of coarse aggregate. The study showed that the LWSCC produced with these waste materials were decreased the density (lightweight) of the concrete mixes as EPS tend to form more clumps, absorb water and make the mix dry. Therefore, concrete mixtures were adjusted accordingly to be able to offset the workability caused by the addition of EPS. The increase in WPF content decreased the workability due to clumping that occurred in the mixing phase. The analysis of mechanical properties of the LWSCFRC specimens revealed that there was not much improvement. While LWSCC with 100% of EPS replacement as coarse aggregates and 1.25% WPFs provides the best flexural toughness performance


Flexural Strength and Behavior of Reinforced Izocrete Light Weight

Aso A. Faqe Rahim .; Muhamad R. Abdulqadir .

Iraqi Journal of Civil Engineering, 2020, Volume 14, Issue 2, Pages 22-30
DOI: 10.37650/ijce.2020.172865

This study describes the results of tests carried out in order to investigate the structural behavior of reinforced concrete beams containing Expanded Polystyrene (EPS) stabilized Polystyrene beads. Three concrete mixtures were used with densities 350kg/m3, 500 kg/m3 and 600 kg/m3. A total of 12 beams, with control specimens were tested after 28 days of curing immersion in water. Four types of steel reinforcement were utilized: Two ratios of tensile steel reinforcement without compression steel and the same two ratios of tensile reinforcement with compression steel and stirrups. The beams were tested under 4- points loading up to failure. The main variables considered in this study were: different types of Izocrete densities and types of reinforcement steel bars. The results indicated that the amount of polystyrene beads significantly affects the strength of the concrete produced. In general, it can be observed that the compression, tensile and flexure strengths decreased as the EPS beads contents increased, and the moment capacity of the beams reduced with the increase of the beads ratio.The load deflection behavior of the Izocrete beams were similar to other lightweight concrete beams .The failure in most of the beams was initiated at the compression region undergoing large deformation due to the high compressibility of the material.


Optimal Height And Location Model (OHALM) for rainwater harvesting small dams (Iraqi western desert- case study)

Rasha Ismaeel Naif .; Isam M. Abdulhameed .

Iraqi Journal of Civil Engineering, 2020, Volume 14, Issue 2, Pages 31-36
DOI: 10.37650/ijce.2020.172866

Dams are considered as the best solution to conserve water especially in arid and semi-arid regions. This study aims to design a small dams series to conserve rainfall water. Mathematical model is proposed to optimize these dams height and locations, its named as Optimal Height And Location Model (OHALM). In this study, new method is introduced to estimate the optimal water level and volume of storage by combining between the digital elevation model generated by the Advanced Space borne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) data, and the proposed model (OHALM). Two dams sites were selected for checking the validity of proposed method. The results of the present study showed that the error percentage increase or decrease from reference value by 3.5%, 13% for water level in Al-Rutba dam and Horan 3 dam respectively, and by 6.63%, 35.8% from volume of storage in Al-Rutba dam and Horan 3 dam respectively. The relative error shows a big difference from the actual data, which is a positive percentage for storing additional quantities of rainwater. That means the proposed program is better than the existing dam design, and thus the possibility of using this method to determine the optimal height of the proposed water harvesting sites.


Estimation of Hydropower Harvesting from the Hydraulic Structures on Rivers: Ramadi Barrage, Iraq as a Case Study

Omar Sulaiman Abdullah .; Ammar Hatem Kamel .; Wissam Hashim Khalil .; Amer Al-damook .

Iraqi Journal of Civil Engineering, 2020, Volume 14, Issue 2, Pages 37-43
DOI: 10.37650/ijce.2020.172867

In recent years, Iraq suffers from exacerbation of the deficit of electrical energy as well as the great environmental pollution resulting from the use of traditional fuels. This called for serious thought to search for using clean and renewable energy sources may available in Iraq.In the present study; small hydropower (i.e. Archimedes screw turbine) are specifically used with a low head at Ramadi Barrage in Iraq. This type of small hydropower station is suitable to apply because not need high storage water or high head in Barrage. The power production in this technology depends on the parameters of the location in which it is placed such as (length L, angle of inclination α, Diameter D,….). The physical model of the Archimedes screw turbine is applied to determine the optimal α. The solid work package with a combination of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) analysis by ANSYS have been used to simulate numerically a three dimensions model to determine the value of power that could be produced by the Archimedes turbine in the Ramadi Barrage. The turbine's performance are tested on two cases which represent low and high discharge investigations with different α (18⁰, 23⁰, 30⁰, 35⁰) based on different flow conditions and different water head between upstream and downstream of the barrage. The results showed that the maximum power production from the barrage is 280,000 watts with α=35° and efficiency η=89.9% for case 1; while; this power becomes 400,000 watts with α=30° but of efficiency η=84.9% for case 2. It is concluded from this research that power production from Ramadi Barrage could be investment to eliminate the deficit in the electrical energy in Iraq.


Sustainable Development of Wadi Houran- Western Iraqi Desert

Isam M. Abdulhameed .

Iraqi Journal of Civil Engineering, 2020, Volume 14, Issue 2, Pages 44-53
DOI: 10.37650/ijce.2020.172868

Wadi Houran is one of the largest valleys in Iraq. Although it is discharging billions of rainfall water over/during many years to Euphrates river, it's almost devoid of agricultural investment. The current study aims to focus on this important valley water resource and study the possibility of constructing a series of small dams to store rainfall water and planting forestry and establishing a natural reserve that is able to sustain and improve ecology system. Target area of 4000 km2 is selected in the midstream of the valley. In general, it is about one billion m3 of rainwater flowing to Euphrates River during some years with yearly average values about 400 Mm3. Four dams were constructed to store about 46 Mm3 of rainwater. It is possible to construct small-dam-series of optimal height and location to expand the rainwater harvesting and groundwater recharging. A Current study was done and aimed to establish of oases and natural reserves in order to improve climate conditions, minimize the dust and CO2, mitigation of summer high temperature and decrease the soil erosion due to torrents. This study recommended constructing 13 optimal height dams that store about 303 Mm3 of water, and increase the water surface area of reservoirs in this valley from 15 to 90 km2which leads increase the water volume that is recharging ground water from 4.7 Mm3 to 28 Mm3 per year.