Submissions are assessed by the Editorial Board and are subject to external peer review using the single-blind method whereby the authors are blinded to the identity of the reviewers and editors.
On average the journal returns a decision on a peer-reviewed paper in 30 days.
Authors who feel they have grounds to appeal a rejection decision should send a rebuttal letter to the editorial office, detailing the reasons for the appeal. Rebuttals will be considered by the Editor-in-Chief, often in consultation with the Editorial Board Member who handled the paper. Decisions on appeals are final.
Structure – Ensure the submission is structured as requested by the journal and contains all relevant sections. See 'Preparation of Manuscripts' for further details.
Title page – All submissions must have a title page stating all of the relevant information. See 'General' for further details.
Format – All submissions should follow the journal guidelines for word count, page margins, and line numbering. See 'General' for further details.
Reported data – Data accuracy is crucial. Authors are strongly encouraged to double-check all reported data for accuracy and to confirm that all units of measurement are correct and consistent.
References – Please see ‘References’ for full details of the journal’s required style.
Graphics – All figures and tables should be presented in a clear and informative manner with accompanying legends.
Ethical compliance – All articles are required to meet the requirements outlined in our ethical policy. Ensure you have included all relevant ethical approval statements.
• Approval – Ensure all authors have seen and approved the final version of the article prior to submission. All authors must also approve the journal you are submitting to.
• Open access – The appropriate open-access option must be selected on submission. Authors are responsible for ensuring any funder mandates are followed. For further details, please see the open-access policy.
Uploading your submission
• Author list – All authors must be listed on the title page and entered on the Scholar One Manuscripts submission in the correct order. Ensure all author email addresses provided are valid.
• Cover letter – This letter should introduce your paper and outline why your work is important and suitable for publication at this time.
• File formats – Ensure all files are in the correct format for revised submissions. See ‘General’ for further instructions.
• Figures and tables – Ensure all figures and table files are present and correct.
All research submissions should be formatted in the following sections:
1. Title Page
Include a separate title page with:
• Title (maximum 85 characters)
• All authors names and full addresses
• Corresponding author’s postal and email address
• A short title (maximum 46 characters, including spaces)
• A minimum of five keywords describing the manuscript
• Word count of the full article, excluding references and figure legends
The abstract should be a single paragraph of not more than 300 words, clearly stating the objective of the study or review, the methods used (where applicable), and summarizing results and conclusions. Avoid abbreviations and references in this section.
The introduction should set the study in context by briefly reviewing relevant knowledge of the subject; follow this with a concise statement of the objectives of the study.