Volume 15, Issue 2, Summer 2021


Assessment of Groundwater Quality at Selected Location of three Wells and Al-Warrar Canal, Ramadi City, Iraq.

Rea'am Abood

Iraqi Journal of Civil Engineering, 2021, Volume 15, Issue 2, Pages 1-7

To classification groundwater quality in the study area, three wells were drilled at a depth of 10m and selected two locations across Al Warrar Canal to represent their water quality. Water samples were collected from these wells and the Warrar Canal to examine water quality. Then results were compared against the World Health Organization (WHO) limits to study the Index of Water Quality (WQI). WQI was calculated according to the Canadian Council of Ministers of the Environment (CCME), and the quality of water was evaluated for domestic and irrigation uses. The samples were tested for electrical conductivity, pH, temperature, total dissolved solids, chloride, total hardness, nitrate, and alkalinity according to the standard methods. The results of laboratory analysis showed significant differences among the wells and Warrar Canal water quality in the measured parameters according to WHO limits. Due to many human activities like urbanization, agrarian overflow, drainage of untreated sewage, and industrialization, high values of trace elements and heavy metals were recorded in wells three. For agriculture purposes, the results show that the water in the three wells is very high salinity, where the Warrar Canal is high salinity, and Canal water causes saline and alkali damages. It was recommended that the WQI in three wells was poor water quality whereas, marginal water quality was pointed in AL Warrar Canal.
 

 

Flow ability and Mechanical Properties of Shotcrete concrete incorporated with Waste Plastic Fibers

Amer M. Enad .; Abdulkader I. Al-Hadithi .; Yousif A. Mansoor .

Iraqi Journal of Civil Engineering, 2021, Volume 15, Issue 2, Pages 8-15

Polyethylene terephthalate (PET) fiber is a green-friendly fiber that is capable of enhancing the mechanical properties of wet-mixing shotcrete. The main purpose of this study is to see how varied volumes of waste plastic fibers (WPF) affect the flowability and mechanical properties of wet-mix shotcrete. For this aim, a variety of experimental tests based on WPF content were chosen. Fresh and mechanical tests included slump, T500, density, compressive strength, and splitting strength were applied. The results shown a improved in shotcrete performance as the WPF content increased. Among all fitting correlations, density and compressive strength revealed the strongest linear ship association. Due to greater interlocking between WPF and concrete matrix, WPF was a major use in enhancing splitting tensile strength. WPF had the most influence on splitting strength, with 23–31 percent, 7–23 percent, and 6–38 percent for 7, 14, and 28-day, respectively
 

 

Characterization of Incorporating RAP Materials to the Asphalt Layers of Pavement Structure

Abdalsattar M. Abdalhameed .; Duraid M. Abd .

Iraqi Journal of Civil Engineering, 2021, Volume 15, Issue 2, Pages 16-28

Recycling the old paving waste and reusing it in the construction of new highways was resorted to, and this is a good step from an economic point of view, as well as from an environmental and health point of view, as it reduces carbon emissions and eliminates a large amount of disposable reclaimed asphalt pavement materials (RAP). This study aims to evaluate the best layer of pavement structure; base, binder, and surface layers for inclusion (RAP) materials based on stability and indirect tensile strength. In addition, highlight the best percentage that can be added from RAP to achieve positive results and better than that associated reference mixture in terms of Marshall test and Indirect tensile strength test RAP materials collected from different sources Karbala and Fallujah, were adopted in this study at percentages of 20%, 30%, and 40% by weight of the asphalt mixture. Two scenarios of incorporating RAP materials have been adopted : The first is considered that RAP as a black rock in which the effect of aged binder surrounding the aggregate of RAP is neglected while the second is not considered RAP as black rock and the influence of aged binder in RAP materials has been taken into consideration. Dora bitumen has been adopted in the current study which is used commonly in Iraq. It has been highlighted that the best layer in which RAP can be incorporated is the base layer, with a percentage up to 40% that RAP without considering RAP black rocks regardless of the sources of RAP.
 

 

Improving clay brick Column’s compression capacity using CFRP sheets and Reinforced concrete jacketing

Ammar Dakhil .; Zahir Mohamed Naji .; Samir Al Jasim .

Iraqi Journal of Civil Engineering, 2021, Volume 15, Issue 2, Pages 29-40

Brick as a construction material can be considered one of the most common materials used for a very long time to construct buildings in iraq. The historic building represents one of the most important figures representing the rich history of iraq, which is built with bricks. Due to the aging of this type of building, a necessary improvement and retrofit need to occur. The paper investigates the ability to use different kinds of materials such as cfrp and srg to enhance the brick columns' structural capacity. From the results and discussions, it can be concluded that these materials are suitable to be used for this purpose with some limitations due to brick capacity itself
 

 

Developing a Modal Split Model Using Fuzzy Inference System in Ramadi City

Omaima A. Yousif .; Adil N. Abed .; Hamid A. Awad .

Iraqi Journal of Civil Engineering, 2021, Volume 15, Issue 2, Pages 41-51

Several different deterministic and probabilistic mathematical approaches have been used to develop modal split models. The data collected by a questionnaire survey approach is frequently associated with subjectivity, imprecision, and ambiguity. additionally, several linguistic terms are used to express some of the transportation planning variables. This can be solved by modeling mode choosing behavior with artificial intelligence techniques such as fuzzy logic. In this research, Ramadi city in Iraq has been selected as a study area. For the purpose of obtaining data, the study area was divided into traffic analysis zones (TAZ). The total number of traffic zones was set as 28 traffic zones, 22 were internal traffic zones and 6 external traffic zones. Field surveys and questionnaires are used to collect data on traffic, land use, and socioeconomic characteristics factors (age, gender, vehicle ownership, family income, trip purpose, trip origin and destination, trip time, waiting duration, duration inside mode, trip origin and destination, trip cost, and type of mode used for transport). The results showed that the modal split models based on the fuzzy inference system can deal with linguistic variables as well as address uncertainty and subjectivity and they gave very good prediction accuracy for future prediction. Fuzzy inference system proved that all factors affected the mode choice with a very strong correlation coefficient (R) equal to 93.1 for general trips but when the results were compared with multiple linear regression model found that the correlation coefficient (R) equal to 28.9 for general trips and the most influential factors on the mode choice are car ownership, age and trip cost. Thus, it can be concluded that fuzzy logic models were more capable of capturing and integrating human knowledge in mode selection behavior. In addition, this study will help decision-makers to plan transportation policies for Ramadi city.