Print ISSN: 1992-7428

Online ISSN: 2706-686X

Volume 11, Issue 3

Volume 11, Issue 3, Summer and Autumn 2017, Page 1-14


Decolorization and Degradation of Reactive Red Dye-238 by using ZnO

Riyad Al-Anbari .; Abdul Hamed Al-Obaidy .; Eman Abd .

Iraqi Journal of Civil Engineering, 2017, Volume 11, Issue 3, Pages 1-7
DOI: 10.37650/ijce.2017.172887

Removal of reactive red dye (Cibacron Red FN-R) from simulated wastewater has been investigated as a function of solar advanced oxidation process. The photocatalytic activity using ZnO as a photocatalyst has been estimated. Different parameters affected the removal efficiency, including pH of the solution; initial dye concentration and H2O2 concentration were evaluated to find out the optimum value of these parameters. The results proved that, the optimal pH value was 8 and the most efficient H2O2 concentration was 100mg/L. Reduction of organic content for effluent solution was also monitored by measuring chemical oxygen demand (COD) to assess the degradation process. This treatment method was able to strongly reduce the organic content of reactive red dye-238 to 90% while the colour removal was 99%. It can be concluded, from these experiments, that the using of ZnO as a photocatalysis was exhibited as economical and efficient treatment method to remove reactive red dye-238 from aqueous solution by reducing its colour and COD value. Results were properly fitted to LH model.
 

 

Statistical Evaluation of Value Engineering Criteria's in Sustainable Building Projects

Faiq M. S. AL-Zwainy; Jumaa Awad AL-Somaydaii

Iraqi Journal of Civil Engineering, 2017, Volume 11, Issue 3, Pages 1-14
DOI: 10.37650/ijce.2017.135632

Sustainable buildings reflect the interest rising of Urbanism sectors in issues of economic development, optimal utilization of natural resources and greater reliance on "renewable" sources of energy. The objective of the research is to identify and Diagnosis the priority of alternatives to sustainable projects with the of relative importance and to review the value engineering indicators in building and the possibility of applying sustainable building standards such as British Standards (BREEAM), US Standards (LEED), Pearl Rating System and Green Pyramid Assessment System. The research is based on four axes. The first axis is the foundations of architectural design to serve the optimum use of the available resources. The second axis is based on the methods of producing building materials with optimum use of natural resources; Third axis: The sustainable use of the building to achieve conservation of the environment using economical sources of energy, waste recycling and maintenance of the building according to the required specifications. The fourth axis, which means Using renewable energies to provide the building with the energy it needs.
The literature and researches in the field of research work were reviewed, which included the concept of applying value engineering method in the sustainable buildings and the most important areas of their applications during the stages of completion of the project and what are the basic considerations that should be provided in the construction projects, Which represents the practical aspect in relation to the various stages of the field study, which includes aspects related to the field survey, through the preparation and Configure of questionnaires derived from the theoretical study and interviews and also focused on the indicators and areas of applications during the stages of the project (pre-construction stage, implementation stage, A maintenance and operation, post-construction phase (end of the age of the building) and what are the basic considerations that must be provided in the construction projects.
The research provided this results: The Sustainable Buildings Projects location Selection Index is The most important indicators of value engineering for sustainable buildings where relative importance of it is 72%, according to the respondents' answers, conversely the architectural index, with its relative importance of 55%, while the electromechanical index was 68% and the constructional index by 65%. And the development of a waste management program during the process of construction and operation so that this program achieves the minimum recycling and the use of new alternatives to building materials drawing on what has been developed within other areas in the development of the construction industry.

Detect irregularities of master plan by comparison with land use, using GIS and remote sensing techniques for Falujah city

Muthana Mohammed A. Albayati .; Noor Hashim Hamed .; Safaa J. Al any .

Iraqi Journal of Civil Engineering, 2017, Volume 11, Issue 3, Pages 8-17
DOI: 10.37650/ijce.2017.172888

Most of Iraqi Cities suffering from delaying of the update of Master plan, especially in the period between 1980 and 2003 the main reasons this delay are the Gulf War and the Economic Blockade. Increasing of population is the major factor causes changing in urban land use due to the human demand. These changes cause differences between master plan and real situation. To mention the spatial irregularities in Falujah City, the comparison between the master plan layers and updating land use map layers has achieved in this paper to determine the spatial change and irregularities in the city, that represent the reality of situation in case study . The changes were remarked; the areas of changes were calculated in table and thematic map were produced in our paper to illustrate the goal. This data processed using combination of GIS technique, and global positioning system GPS and geo media software.
 

 

The developing system to manage the maintenance of complexes which have central operational system

Abdulrahman A. Ibrahim .; Raid S. Abd Ali .; Maher H. Johan .

Iraqi Journal of Civil Engineering, 2017, Volume 11, Issue 3, Pages 15-28
DOI: 10.37650/ijce.2017.172889

The maintenance operation of complexes and the direction of it is management is considered the most important activities which must be given much more efforts and seriousness because of it is considered the national resource and is to save the best ways of living equally all social classes in addition to it considered one of modern and civilized appearances. The paper deals with field study of the town with (2800) housing units with various and complete service units through shedding the light on the real work of the organization runs maintenance in the technical and administrative fields as well as appointing the weak point and finding the best way to handle by developing the existing maintenance order . The proposed development focusing on the following: •The periodic maintenance with some general terms (checking and evaluation) the best means to control defects.•The administrative operation elements in the organization especially the regulation and planning. •Saving the necessary financial resources to carry out the activities of various maintenance. •The importance of limiting the priorities in the work. •Trying to practices new subject in dealing with employees in simple and polite way and create anther image of collection management. Therefor, we draw conclusion of the beneficiary of these systems actively to develop the complexes maintenance system in all over the country by making the suitable amendment for every case.
 

 

Evaluating the Feasibility Study of Hilla - Kifl Irrigation Project

Awss Hatim Mahmoud .

Iraqi Journal of Civil Engineering, 2017, Volume 11, Issue 3, Pages 18-31
DOI: 10.37650/ijce.2017.172890

Now and in the future, many countries expect to face inadequate water resources to fulfil their recent environmental, industrial, domestic and agricultural water needs. The world population is expected to grow about 30% at the year 2025, getting 8 billion persons. The living standards are also anticipated to increase as a result of improving urbanization, communications and globalization. So, competition on water among the domestic, industrial, agricultural and other users will rise in unprecedented levels.The researcher studied feasibility study and records that were generated during the life of the Hilla – Kifl irrigation project so as to get some perception into the planning and implementation processes. The researcher made field visits concentrating on direct observation of unending and completed project activities. During the field visits, group discussions and interviews with project staff, farmers and resident engineer were held.The objective of this research is to define the extent to which the feasibility study aims and objectives of Hilla – Kifl irrigation project were met. It was also significant to find best lessons and practices learned so as to improve the design, planning and implementation of future irrigation projects.
 

 

Feasibility study for Production and implementation of Precast Units for Roofs of low Cost Dwelling Units

Tariq M. Haddad .; Suad N. Akab .

Iraqi Journal of Civil Engineering, 2017, Volume 11, Issue 3, Pages 29-40
DOI: 10.37650/ijce.2017.172891

Housing represents a major world wide problem, especially for developing countries. It is essential to construct suitable housing units that are appropriate for the continuing population increase. Many countries have applied construction (policies) that depended on the available material and human resources. These schemes aim at producing the greatest number of dwelling units that are suitable for the people who do not own units. The aim of this research is the scope of low cost dwelling units in general, and through the reduction of roofing cost. The objective of the research, Economical feasibility study for production precast units (ferro cement units) for roofs of low cost dwelling and compare the cost of the proposed system With other conventional roofing systems: roofing by (jack arching) and reinforced concrete. Fifteen units of Ferrocement with square shape and three different dimensions were cast and tested for load test, tensile strength, compressive strength and bending. The optimized dimensions were (750*750*20)mm and the capacity ranges from (13 to 17.7)KNM2.The cost of (1m2 ) of these units was (38292.4)I.DM2 while the cost of (1m2 ) reinforced concrete (58534.94(I.D and (51062.7) I.DM2 for (jack arching)
 

 

Optimum Analysis and Design of Curved Concrete Dams

Ayad Abdul Hammed Sulaibi .; Noor Waleed awaid Al-kubaisy .

Iraqi Journal of Civil Engineering, 2017, Volume 11, Issue 3, Pages 32-51
DOI: 10.37650/ijce.2017.172892

This research presents an efficient strategy to find optimum analysis and shape design for arch dams. Where the design geometry is built using (Solid Work Program), which is considered as one of important programs for analysis and design of complex structures. A finite element method is used to analyze the arch dam body, which is proved to be an important method for analysis and gives accurate results according to previous researches. The design of the basic shape of the dam has been done by using horizontal curve and vertical curve equations. After conducting the analysis and design of the initial model by (SolidWork) program, it was transferred to the second phase. This is the shape optimization process by using (Genetic Algorithm) in (Matlab) program. This method is an efficient method for all optimization problems in different branches. The objective function in this research is the minimum volume of the dam, which leads to minimum weight design. There are many constraint controls the selecting of optimum shape. In this work, geometrical and structural constraints are considered. At this stage, to calculate the volume of the dam body, integration method is used to convert the volume in terms of the design variables (tc1, tc2, and tc3) which represent the thickness of the dam at three levels. Then this equation has been moved to (Genetic Algorithm tools) using (m-file) to complete the optimization process. The results show that the best design shape of the dam is with thicknesses (5.5m, 13.3m, and 19.8m) with a final optimal volume of53.75% less than the initial model and the stress is still less than the allowable limits
 

 

The impact of spatial variables in dust storms on desert cities Study Area / Ramadi City

Thaer Shakir Mahmood .

Iraqi Journal of Civil Engineering, 2017, Volume 11, Issue 3, Pages 41-49
DOI: 10.37650/ijce.2017.172893

Our cities is desert cities because of desert climate factors in them , this research deals with role of spatial factors in the dust storms of desert cities . Two factors effected in spatial : Difference of elevation and distance from the center city . We found multi relationships between spatial factors and dust storms in Ramadi city , Which these relationship very important in city design and planning such as in objective , urban and rural environment , environmental planning
 

 

Experimental Study of Behavior of Reinforced Concrete One-Way Slabs Strengthened and Repaired by Ferrocement at Tension Zone

mazan D.Abdullah .

Iraqi Journal of Civil Engineering, 2017, Volume 11, Issue 3, Pages 52-67
DOI: 10.37650/ijce.2017.172894

The principal objective of this paper is to investigation the experimental of the flexural behavior of strengthened and repaired reinforced concrete slabs with ferrocement tension zone. The result of tests on 10 simply supported one way slabs were presented, at which include 1control slab, 5strengthened slabs and 4repaired one way slabs. In the strengthened slabs, the cover of the control slab replacing with ferrocement cover, cold joint between ferrocement layer and the slab, connection type between the ferrocement layer and the slab, on the ultimate load, first crack load, the mid span-deflection, crack width and spacing were examined. In the repaired part the slabs were loaded to (55 %) of measured ultimate load of control slab, the effect of the thickness and number of wire mesh layers on crack pattern, mid span deflection and ultimate load was examined. In the repaired part the slabs were loaded to (55 %) of measured ultimate load of control slab, effect of the number of wire mesh layers of ferrocement on the mid span deflection, ultimate load and crack pattern was examined. The experimental results of strengthened and repaired slabs indicate that; the ultimate loads and mid span deflection were more effected by using ferrocement mortar at tension zone. The increase in ultimate load (8.2-18%) for strengthen slab and (9.1-17.3%) for repaired slab respect to the control slab.
 

 

Experimental study of Castellated Steel Beams

Mazin A. Al-Mazini .

Iraqi Journal of Civil Engineering, 2017, Volume 11, Issue 3, Pages 68-78
DOI: 10.37650/ijce.2017.172895

In this study an investigation of castellated beam are presented. The experimental and analytical results of seven simple castellated beams and other one has webbed section are summarized in this study. The target of the search was to study the structural behavior and mode of failure of castellated beams which have different geometric shape of hole and varies lengths span of beams, and attempt to find out the possibility of Biodgett equation and Halleux equation to determine ultimate and limit load respectively. Four angle off cutting were used to achieve the change in the geometry of hole (45, 50, 60 and 90 degree). The specimens were made from IB 203x133x25 and were expanded to 1.5 times the standard depth. Ultimate and limit load, load-deflection relation shapes and mode of failure were presented and discussed. The experimental results showed that the ultimate and limit load of castellated beams decreases with increasing the angle of cutting and Biodgett equation gives acceptable results for estimating ultimate load when the angle of cutting 50° or less. Also it is found that the limit load of castellated beam by Haleux equation is incorrect when the angle of cutting greater than 50°. As well as ANSYS-12 was used to analysis these beams by nonlinear finite element method. Four- nodes shell element (SHELL 181) was used to represent the castellated and webbed beams. This model was validated by comparison of the experimental and numerical results of ultimate load and their corresponding modes of failure.